Nussa tenggara


Les îles de la Sonde sont un archipel de l'Insulinde. On les divise traditionnellement en deux groupes : les grandes îles de la Sonde et les petites îles de la Sonde.
Leur nom vient de "Sunda", le plateau continental qui englobe les îles de SumatraJava et Bornéo. Ce nom vient lui-même de "Sunda", le pays des Sundanais qui peuplent la partie occidentale de l'île de Java. Sunda a également donné son nom au détroit qui sépare Java de Sumatra, le détroit de la Sonde.
Par extension, on y inclut parfois d'autres îles voisines comme Bornéo dans les grandes îles de la Sonde et Timor dans les petites îles de la Sonde.

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Grandes îles de la SondeModifier

Article détaillé : Grandes îles de la Sonde.
On appelle ainsi les îles de SumatraJava, et parfois Sulawesi et Bornéo.

Petites îles de la SondeModifier

Les petites îles de la Sonde, en indonésien Nusa Tenggara, désignent le sud de la partie centrale de l'archipel indonésien. Elles sont administrativement divisées entre les provinces de Bali, des petites îles de la Sonde occidentales et des Petites Îles de la Sonde orientales ainsi que le Timor oriental.

Culture populaireModifier

Les îles de la Sonde est le titre de la quatrième chanson de l'album L'atelier du crabe de Gérard Manset (1981).
https://fr.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Îles_de_la_Sonde

Nusa tenggara ISLANDS

West Nusa Tenggara
The Wallace Line, named after 19th century naturalist, Alfred Russell Wallace, marks a point of transition between the flora and fauna of western and Eastern Indonesia and acts as the Western boundary of West Nusa Tenggara, which includes the islands of Lombok and Sumbawa.
Lombok is noticeably different than its close neighbor, Bali. The northern part of the island is mountainous and lush with tall trees and shrubs. The South, on the other hand is arid and covered by savanna. Large Asian mammals are absent and replaced instead by marsupials, lizards, cockatoos and parrots. The difference becomes more pronounced as one moves further east, where dry seasons are more prolonged and corn and sago are the staple food, instead of rice.
At around the time Islam first came to these islands in the 16th century, four Hindu Kingdoms co - existed in apparent peace in what is now West Nusa Tenggara. Lombok experienced strong Balinese influences, but has retained a unique identity. The indigenous people of Lombok, the Sasaks, are predominantly Moslem and have a strong, distinguished tradition, as do the people of neighboring Sumbawa.
Soft, white sand, virgin beaches are typical in Lombok, where the motto is : "You can see Bali from Lombok, but not Lombok from Bali". Famous for its ikat hand-woven textiles, the island has exceptional charm and is relatively undiscovered, except for the town of Senggigi, which is becoming a major resort area. Regular shuttle flights from Bali and Surabaya as well as ferries, provide excellent transportation links between the islands of the province as well as the rest of the country.
East Nusa Tenggara
The islands of east Nusa Tenggara have been shaped by the power and force of an enormous chain of volcanoes which begins in the north of Sumatra and stretches east across Java, the legendary 'Ring of Fire'. The province consist of over 550 islands, but is dominated by three main islands of Flores, Sumba, and Timor. Occupying a unique position at the junction of Australian and Asian submarine ridges marked by the Wallace line, it is one of the most dynamic and exotic marine environments in the world. The arid landscape of eastern and southern Nusa Tenggara is the result of hot, dry winds blasting in from the Australian continent. In fact, in many coastal areas not a drop of rain falls during most of the year.
Flores is a Portuguese name which means "flower", and ideally describes the beauty to be found here. This long island between Sumbawa and Timor is crowded with volcanoes and mountains, dividing it into several regions with distinct languages and traditions. Predominantly Catholic and heavily influenced by the Portuguese, there are many examples of a strong European cultural heritage, like the Easter procession held in Larantuka, and the royal regalia of the former king in Maumere.
Formerly known as the Sandal wood Island, Sumba is now famous for its horses and a superb style of ikat cloth. Spirits, both ancestral and natural, are worshipped. West Sumba is famous for its enormous megalithic tombs and traditional thatched and peaked huts raised on stilts. Incredible rituals are a way of life here, such as the "Pasola". Where hundreds of horsemen fling spears at each other in a annual traditional ceremonies, all paying homage to the spirit, take place from July to October, including the building of "adat" or traditional houses. Burial ceremonies require the sacrifice of hundreds of pigs, water buffaloes, horses, and dogs. Other ceremonies include "Pajura" or traditional boxing, festivals for the Lunar New Year in October and November, horse races and ritual dances.
Timor is the largest island in the province in terms of population and it is here that the provincial capital of Kupang is located. Timor is rich in culture, beautiful scenery, and magnificent wildlife. The isolated communities have developed a variety of architectural styles. Unlike other parts of East Nusa Tenggara, the roads in Timor are generally good and public transportation is relatively well developed. Kupang is the gateway to Nusa Tenggara with regular, direct flights to and from Darwin in Australia as well as with the rest of the archipelago.

Bali
Bali, one of over 18.000 islands in Indonesia, is famous for its scenic beauty, dynamic culture, and friendly people. Located just south of the equator, tropical Bali traditionally has a hot, wet season (November - March) and a cool, dry one (May - September). Towering volcanoes, some still active, contain large lakes which provide water for irrigating thousands of terraced rice fields, enabling up to three harvests per year. Over the centuries the Balinese culture has proven itself very resilient, managing to blend influences from Asia and West with their own traditions. Buddhism arrived from India during the early centuries of the first millennium followed later by Hinduism and trade contacts with China. Relations with Java began in the 11th century but full Javanese control of Bali did not come until 1334 and lasted only just over 100 years.
Bali's tourism has brought spectacular economic growth, a thriving hotel industry, and major improvements to transportation and communication facilities. The international fame of Bali's culture has also brought a heightened sense of identity among the Balinese. Many villages produce arts and crafts, present music and dance performances, and hold elaborate religious ceremonies. As always, the Balinese take everything in their stride, absorbing and adapting from different sources. They are a flexible people, welcoming new ideas but at the same time retaining a unique life-style guided by their religious, social and cultural traditions.
Religion And Temples
Balinese religion, Hindu Dharma, blends animism, Buddhism and Hinduism. Ancient beliefs in nature spirits are the basis for including other faiths, with a key focus on maintaining a balance in the cosmos and within oneself. The main tenets are belief in a single divine being, the individual soul, reincarnation of the soul, the effect of present actions on future rebirths, and eventual release from rebirth and union with the Divine. Offerings to the deities, demons, humans, ancestors, and priests are seen as gifts of thanks or appeasement. Ceremonies can be done almost any time and any where, but auspicious days and temples are preferred. A pura or Temple is a walled-in space with an inner courtyard containing shrines and pavilions for the visiting deities. Outer areas have cooking areas and performance spaces. An odalan or anniversary celebration is a festive event with music, dance, offerings and ritual worship : it is as much a time for socializing and entertainment as it is a religious occasion. Visitors wishing to see a temple festival should follow basic rules of etiquette as the Balinese appreciate those who show respect for their customs.