Sumatra


Sumatra est rapidement en train de devenir une des destinations touristiques les plus prisées d’Indonésie, et les installations pour les visiteurs ont été améliorées ces dernières années. Pour ceux qui veulent une expérience différente et authentique, il existe toujours des possibilités sur cette île immense et diversifiée.

Sumatra est la cinquième plus grande île du monde et la troisième plus grande en Indonésie. La population y est d’à peu près 40 millions. L’île est divisée entre les provinces d’Aceh, Riau, Jambi, Bengkulu et Lampung, et Sumatra Nord, Sud, Est et Ouest. L’île est bordée de l’Océan Indien à l’ouest et de la Malaisie à l’est, et est seulement séparée de la péninsule malaise par le détroit de Malacca. La région mesure environ 425 000 kilomètres carrés. Une chaîne de montagnes volcaniques, Bukit Barisan, s’étend du sud jusqu’à la partie nord-ouest de l’île. Il n’y a que très peu de basses-terres le long de la côte ouest, la plupart des gens vivent donc dans les hautes-terres. La plus haute montagne de l’île est Gunung Kerinci qui culmine à 3 805 m. Sumatra comptent environ 90 volcans, dont 15 sont toujours en activité. La cendre volcanique de cette région est principalement acide, et n’aide pas à améliorer la terre cultivable, à la différence de Java et Bali. Il existe cependant quelques exceptions, comme la région autour de Bukittinggi où la terre est très fertile.

La partie est de Sumatra est clairement différente de l’ouest avec une immense plaine qui s’étend du sud au nord. La moitié de cette région est constituée de marécages, et ne convient pas pour l’agriculture. A l’exception de la région de Medan, qui est de nos jours la plus densément peuplée de Sumatra. Près de Medan se trouve l’immense cratère de Toba formant un lac, qui est également une des principales attractions touristiques. Les îles faisant face à la côte ouest, comme Nias et Mentawai, sont géologiquement plus anciennes que l’île principale de Sumatra.

La population de Sumatra est d’environ 40 millions d’habitants. L’islam a atteint cette île et le reste de l’Asie du sud-est vers al fin du XIIIème siècle, d’abord au niveau de la côte nord-est où l’une des premières villes converties à l’islam fut Samudra. Ce nom fut ensuite donné à l’île toute entière, Samudra veut dire "océan" en sanskrit. A partir du XVIème siècle, cette partie de Sumatra fut nommée Sultanat d’Aceh, une région aujourd’hui connue pour la force de son mouvement indépendantiste et peut-être la région d’Indonésie où l’islam a la position la plus forte. La plus grande partie des habitants de Sumatra actuels descendent des malais, les plus grands groupes ethniques sont les habitants de la province d’Aceh, les Batak, les Minangkabau (voir Bukittinggi), les Gayo et d’autres groupes d’indigènes plus petits. Dans les grandes villes, on trouve également des groupes importants de chinois, d’arabes et d’indiens.

Nous ne savons que peu de choses concernant Sumatra avant l’arrivée de l’islam. Des outils en pierre ont été trouvés au nord de Medan indiquant que des chasseurs-cueilleurs vivaient aux abords du détroit de Malacca il y a 13 000 ans, et il y a environ 2 000 une culture mégalithique fit son apparition dans les montagnes occidentales de Sumatra, et une culture mégalithique du même type apparut sur l’île de Nias au large de la côte occidentale.

Sumatra n’a eu que peu de contact avec le monde extérieur avant l’apparition des grands empires commerciaux au sud-est de l’île au VIIème siècle, probablement la même base que dans le Palembang d’aujourd’hui. Il s’agit du royaume bouddhiste de Srivijaya, qui contrôlait tout le trafic entre le détroit de Malacca et le détroit de Sunda entre Java et Sumatra. Ils finirent par gouverner la plus grande partie de l’Asie du sud-est, à son apogée, Srivijaya gouvernait l’île de Sumatra toute entière, la péninsule malaise, la Thaïlande du Sud, le Cambodge et une grande partie de Java et de Bornéo. L’empire commença à s’effondrer lorsqu’il fut conquis par le roi d’Inde du Sud Ravendra Choladewa en 1025. Le royaume de Malayu a hérité d’une partie de la gloire et du pouvoir de Srivijaya et les a conservés encore 200 ans. Malayu fut vaincu en 1278 par une expédition japonaise, et le pouvoir central fut déplacé au nord au profit d’un group de sultanats islamique de la côte est que l’on appelle de nos jours Aceh. Ces sultanats étaient à l’origine des ports visant à développer le commerce au niveau du détroit de Malacca, et un grand nombre de marchands étaient originaires de l’Inde Occidentale. Ils ne mirent que peu de temps à convaincre les natifs d’adopter leur religion, et ce fut ainsi que l’Islam fit sa réelle apparition en Indonésie.

Marco Polo passa cinq mois dans le port de Sumatra en 1292, et dans son rapport, il fait mention du nom de Sumatra, c’est peut-être cette erreur d’écriture qui est à l’origine du nom actuel de l’île. Après la conquête de Malacca par les portugais sur la péninsule malaise en 1512 Aceh prit le cont

Source de l'information : 
http://www.tourisme-indonesie.fr/content/destinations-principales-l-ile-de-sumatra

Sumatra est une île de l'Ouest indonésien située sur l'équateur. Son nom vient de Samudra, la capitale du sultanat de Pasai dans le nord de l'île (en langue malaisesamudera signifie « océan »). Avec ses 473 481 km2, elle est la septième plus grande île au monde, et d'une surface légèrement supérieure à l'Irak et le dernier recensement était de 50 365 538 habitants.
Sumatra
Topographie de Sumatra
Topographie de Sumatra
Géographie
PaysDrapeau de l'Indonésie Indonésie
ArchipelGrandes îles de la Sonde
LocalisationOcéan Indien et océan Pacifique
Coordonnées0° N, 102° E
Superficie473 481 km2
Côtes4 869 km
Point culminantKerinci (3 805 m)
GéologieÎle volcanique
Administration
ProvincesBengkuluJambiLampungAcehRiauSumatra du NordSumatra occidentalSumatra du Sud
Démographie
Population50 365 538 hab. (2010)
Densité106,37 hab./km2
Plus grande villeMedan
Autres informations
DécouvertePréhistoire
Géolocalisation sur la carte : Indonésie
(Voir situation sur carte : Indonésie)
Sumatra
Sumatra
Les principales langues parlées sont : acehbatakmalaisminangkabau. La majorité des habitants sont musulmans, mais Sumatra compte aussi des protestantscatholiquesbouddhisteshindouistes.
Sur un territoire qui s'étend des marais de la côte est de l'île jusqu'au piémont de la chaîne des Bukit Barisan vivent des populations dispersées en petits groupes qui se désignent elles-mêmes sous le nom d'Orang Darat, c'est-à-dire "peuples de la terre". chasseurs-cueilleurs semi-nomades, ces populations cultivent le sagou et troquent des produits de la forêt contre du sel et des métaux fournis par leurs voisins paysans sédentaires, Batak, Minangkabau et Malais.
Source de l'information :
https://fr.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sumatra


SUMATRA ISLAND
Aceh
At the northwestern end of Sumatra, was the first province of Indonesia to have significant contact with the outside world. Chinese chronicles of the sixth century speak of a kingdom called Po-Li on the northern tip of what is now Sumatra. 9th century Arabic and Indian writings mention Aceh as an important trade centre. The first Islamic Kingdom in Indonesia was established in 804 in Aceh, and the region's position as an Islamic stronghold grew as the city became a centre for Islamic learning and the gateway for Indonesians making the pilgrimage to Mecca.
Over the centuries, a constant influx of traders and immigrants established Aceh as a wealthy and influential trading nation, possessing a strong sense of independence. Aceh's dominance in trade and politics reached its peak in the early 1600's. Aceh's decline began with the death of Sultan Iskandar Thani in 1641, when the British and the Dutch began to battle for control of the region. The London Treaty of 1824 gave the Dutch control of all British possessions in Sumatra, in return for their withdrawal from India and Singapore.
The Acehnese are famous throughout Indonesia for their courage and fierce sense of Independence, and the Dutch lost over 10,000 men during the Aceh Wars, which lasted from 1873 to 1942. Although industrialization and global communications have created a greater openness to western ideas and practices, visitors should keep in mind that the Acehnese take their religion, their manners and their morals very seriously.
Aceh after Tsunami Disaster

North Sumatra
Indonesia's most populous province outside of java, stretches from the Indian Ocean in the west to the Straits of Malaka in the East, and from Aceh in the north to west Sumatra in the south. It is thick with virgin rainforest, jungle-covered hills, terraced rice field, mountain rivers, beautiful waterfalls, volcanic lakes and peaceful white beaches.The people of the region can be divided into five main ethnic groups: the Coastal Malays, Living along the Malacca Straits, the Bataks, consisting of the sub-tribes around Lake Toba and Samosir Island, the Pesisirs along the Indian Ocean coast, the Mandailing of Southern Tapanuli, and Nias Islanders off the western coast of the province. These groups each have their own dialects, religious beliefs, arts, customs and cultures. Several ethnic groups live in Medan and other towns of North Sumatra, the largest of these being Chinese and Indian. Other parts of the archipelago are represented, notably the Acehnese, Minangkabau and Javanese.The diversity of arts and cultures make this region a treasure chest for social scientists and culture seekers. Ancient carved-stone graves of Batak kings, the megalithic culture of Nias, unique dances, ceremonies, arts and crafts are just waiting for you to discover.
North Sumatra is also one of the richest provinces in Indonesia for flora and fauna. And of course the jewel of North Sumatra, Lake Toba, the legendary birthplace of the mountain-dwelling Bataks and the largest island lake in Southeast Asia.
The region also produces more than 30% of Indonesia's export commodities, making it a vital cog in the Indonesian economy. Tobacco, palm oil, tea and rubber are produced in large quantities, particularly around Medan in the north of the province.

West Sumatra
West Sumatra is composed of three regions: volcanic highlands, a long coastal plain and a series of jungle-covered islands just offshore. Much of the province is still wilderness; virgin jungle inhabited by elephants, leopards and rhinos. It is the traditional homeland of the Minangkabau, who are known far and wide through the archipelago for their shrewd business sense, their fiery-hot dishes and ancient matriarchal customs. The women own property and the men leave home to seek their fame and fortune. Travelling is considered a mark of success and West Sumatrans and their Minang or Padang restaurants are found in all major towns across the nation. The people are hospitable and eloquent, with a poetic style of speech. West Sumatran days are filled with colourful ceremonies and festivals. Legend has it the Minangkabau are descendants of the youngest son of Alexander the Great, King Maharajo Dirajo. West Sumatra's centre of culture and tourism is Bukittinggi, nestled in the highlands north of the provincial capital of Padding.
Surrounded by high mountains, picturesque valleys and lakes, Bukittinggi is considered by many tourists to be the most hospitable city in all Sumatra. Padang Tabing Airport is the main gateway to West Sumatra and serviced by local airlines. The MV. Kerens sails every two weeks for Jakarta from Teluk Bayur harbor. Smaller vessels from Muara harbor sail to small towns along the entire west coast of Sumatra. Regular bus services run between Padang Bukittinggi and other major cities of Sumatra, as well as via trans-Sumatra Highway to Jakarta.

Riau Archipelago
The 3,000 islands of the Riau province straddle the Straits of Malacca, one of the oldest and busiest trading routes in the world. For centuries the islands have provided a safe haven to traders and sailors from Europe, India and China, retaining today the flavour of an ancient 'crossroads of the world". The romantic history of this region is rich with tales of piracy and international conflict. Riau, which includes a large part of East Sumatra, is homeland to the Malays and the source of Indonesia's Malay-based national language. The first book of Malay grammar, called Bustanul Katibin, was written and published here in 1857.
Since its founding in 1402 by Parameswara, the Kingdom of Malacca played a leading role in the history of the area. With the arrival of the Portuguese a period of wars for control of the Straits began. The situation was aggravated by the arrival of the Dutch and British in the early 17th century.A turbulent conflict followed, which was partially resolved by the Treaty of London in 1824, giving the Dutch control of all European territories south of Singapore. This area included Riau, and effectively severed its links with Johor and the mainland.

Riau
The Dutch subjugated and dissolved the rebellious Riau Sultanate in 1911, but the province's influence remained strong. Pekanbaru in Sumatra became the provincial capital in 1959, taking over from the former capital of Tanjungpinang on the island of Bintan. Tanjungpinang is, however, still the most important town in the province. Its proximity to Singapore has made it a main business and shopping port and together with the nearby island of Batam, it is promising to became an area of major investment and development in the years ahead. The future looks bright for Riau; because of it is strategic position with the rest of Asia it is rapidly being developing as a major economic zone.

Jambi
The Province of Jambi, located on the east coast of Central Sumatra, faces the Strait of Malaka and shares borders with four other provinces in Sumatra. It has long been a melting pot for different ethnic groups. The earliest inhabitants of Jambi were of Malays to migrate to Sumatra. The ancient Jambi kingdom of Melayu maintained relations with the mighty kingdoms of Sriwijaya, Majapahit and Singasari, but was eventually attacked and annexed by Sriwijaya in the middle of the 17th century. Encompassing an area of 53,435 sq. km, almost 60% of which is forest, the province is an exhilarating place for active and adventurous visitors. Jambi is one of Indonesia's 27 Provinces. Geographically, Jambi Province is located between 0,450 south latitude, and between 101.100 and 105.550 Eastern longitude. Its total area is 53 436.52 square kilometers and it is bordered by the Berhala Starit, South Sumatra Province to the South, West Sumatra Province to the West and Riau Province to the North. Jambi Province is divided into 5 Regencies and one Municipality. These are batang hari with an area of 11 130.5 sq.km, Bungo Tebo (13500 sq.km), Surolangin Bangko (14200 sq.km) and the Jambi Municipality with an area of 306 square kilometers.

Bengkulu
Bengkulu's history is been a difficult one, filled with changing colonial rulers, internal Sumatran wars, disease and exploitation of the indigenous peoples. It was the site of Sir Stamford Raffles first entry into Indonesia and there are still remains of British influence in the area. The primary crops of the area are pepper, coffee, nutmeg and sugar cane. Bengkulu Provinces is easily accessible by land, air and sea transportation. You can catch regular buses direct from Medan, Padang or Jakarta. Flights arrive three times a day. Domestic ships from Jakarta, Padang and Medan stop over in Baai harbor, Bengkulu.

South Sumatra
One of the greatest kingdoms in Indonesian history, the Buddhist Empire of Sriwijaya, prospered along the banks of the Musi River in South Sumatra over a thousand years ago. Located on the southern-most rim of the South China Sea, close to one of the world's busiest shipping lanes linking the Far East with Europe, the region's historical background is rich and colorful.
The Sriwijaya kingdom practiced a bustling and lucrative trade with ancient China during its era of powerful dynasties. In 672 the Chinese-scholar, I Tsing, recorded that a thousand monks and scholars could be seen translating and studying Sanskrit in what is now the regional capital of Palembang. Few relics of this memorable era remain.
Stretching from the foothills of the mighty Bukit Barisan mountain range in West Sumatra to the islands of Bangka and Belitung in the East, the province of South Sumatra is relatively flat but very fertile, with numerous rivers cutting across the landscape and meandering their way to the sea. Coffee and tea plantations are scattered across the province, but the area's enormous wealth comes from oil, natural gas, coal, tin and quartz reserves.
Palembang is still the gateway to the province with one of the region's three major airports. The other two are on Bangka and Belitung islands. All three provide direct connections with Medan, Batam, Padang and Jakarta. Air-conditioned buses from points north and west of Palembang are also regularly available, as well as from major cities in Java and Bali.

The Province of Jambi, located on the east coast of Central Sumatra, faces the Strait of Malaka and shares borders with four other provinces in Sumatra. It has long been a melting pot for different ethnic groups. The earliest inhabitants of Jambi were of Malays to migrate to Sumatra. The ancient Jambi kingdom of Melayu maintained relations with the mighty kingdoms of Sriwijaya, Majapahit and Singasari, but was eventually attacked and annexed by Sriwijaya in the middle of the 17th century. Encompassing an area of 53,435 sq. km, almost 60% of which is forest, the province is an exhilarating place for active and adventurous visitors.

Bangka Belitung
Belonging to this province are two sizable islands, Bangka and Belitung, off Sumatra's east coast. Both Bangka and Belitung are known for the hospitality of their people and for their appetizing seafoods. They are also important producers of tin.

Lampung
Ancient Chinese travel chronicles refer to a place in the most southerly part of Sumatra called "Lampung" or "Place of the southerly winds". Megalithic sculptures discovered in Kebontebu, Kenali, Pugung and Batubedil also help to date the province to Indonesia's greatest maritime empire, Sriwijaya. Strategically located looking towards Krakatau and Java across the Sunda Strait, Lampung has a long history of trade and is still an important gateway into Sumatra, particularly from Jakarta.
The Province is generally flat with the highest mountains of Gunung pesagi, Tanggamas, Seminiung, Sekincau and Raya all being dormant volcanoes. Pundar Lampung, the Provincial capital, was formerly two separate towns, Tanjungkarang and the port of Teluk Betung, which after the infamous eruption of Krakatau were both completely covered in volcanic ash. In the course of development, however, these towns have merged together to become one single city. Being blessed with incredibly fertile soil, agriculture has naturally become the main industry of the province. Clove, coffee, cassava, cocoa and rice are preferred in the eastern sections of the regions. The area around Lake Ranu is primarily a tobacco growing area.
The Way Kambas Nature Reserve in the west of the province is a perfect place to see Sumatran elephants being trained to work in thick tropical jungles as well as hundreds of species of exotic birds. Tigers still roam this land although they are rare. The largest flower in the world, Rafflesia, can be seen at the Bukit Barisan Selatan National park.